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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2010 Dec;30(12):893-900. doi: 10.1089/jir.2010.0046. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Downregulation of Friend leukemia virus integration 1 as a feedback mechanism that restrains lipopolysaccharide induction of matrix metalloproteases and interleukin-10 in human macrophages.

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Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.


The E26 transformation-specific (Ets) proteins are a family of transcription factors with important roles in a variety of cellular processes ranging from proliferation and differentiation to transformation and metastasis. Tissue-specific expression of Ets proteins and their ability to interact with other families of transcription factors contribute to their versatility. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Ets factors in primary human monocytes and macrophages, and their role in matrix metalloprotease (MMP) and cytokine production. The macrophage-activating Toll-like receptor ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induced the expression of Ets family members epithelium-specific Ets factor 3 (ESE-3) and TEL-2 but rapidly suppressed Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI-1) expression. Modulation of FLI-1 expression using either RNA interference or forced expression identified a positive role for FLI-1 in contributing to LPS-induced expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-10, and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Thus, the rapid downregulation of FLI-1 expression after LPS stimulation attenuates the induction of various MMPs and IL-10 under inflammatory conditions. In contrast, the expression of IL-6 and TNFα and the effects of interferon (IFN)γ on LPS responses were not dependent on FLI-1. Our results define a novel FLI-1-mediated self-regulatory feedback loop that limits MMP expression and thus may attenuate extent of tissue destruction associated with inflammatory responses.

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