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Demography. 2010 Aug;47(3):755-75.

Nontraditional families and childhood progress through school.

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  • 1Department of Sociology, Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Bldg. 120, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


luse U.S. census data to perform the first large-sample, nationally representative tests of outcomes for children raised by same-sex couples. The results show that children of same-sex couples are as likely to make normal progress through school as the children of most other family structures. Heterosexual married couples are the family type whose children have the lowest rates of grade retention, but the advantage of heterosexual married couples is mostly due to their higher socioeconomic status. Children ofallfamily types (including children ofsame-sex couples) are far more likely to make normal progress through school than are children living in group quarters (such as orphanages and shelters).

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