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Physiol Genomics. 2010 Nov 29;42A(4):290-300. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00107.2010. Epub 2010 Sep 28.

Actions and interactions of progesterone and estrogen on transcriptome profiles of the bovine endometrium.

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Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan.


The aim of our study was to analyze endometrial gene expression profiles in ovariectomized cows treated with estradiol and/or progesterone by using microarray analysis. Clustering of differentially expressed genes allowed separation into distinct hormone response patterns. These patterns could be classified into independent and interdependent actions of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. The use of ovariectomized cows and external administration of hormones identified a set of genes whose regulation depends on a progesterone priming effect. The progesterone-primed estrogen response comprises gene functions such as migration, cell differentiation, and cell adhesion and therefore may play a crucial role in tissue remodeling, as one of its key regulators in the endometrium, TGFB2, is among this group of progesterone-primed genes. Functional annotation analysis of the estrogen-responsive gene clusters shows a clear dominance of functions such as cell cycle, morphogenesis, and differentiation. The functional profile of the progesterone-responsive clusters is less clear but nevertheless shows some important fertility-related terms like luteinization, oocyte maturation, and catecholamine metabolism. We looked for putative regulators of the steroid hormone response in endometrium by searching for enriched transcription factor binding sites in the promoter regions of the genes with similar hormone response profile. This analysis identified transcription factors such as SP1, NFYA, FOXA2, IRF2, ESR1, and NOBOX as candidate regulators of gene expression in bovine endometrium treated with steroid hormones. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the regulation of bovine endometrial physiology by steroid hormones.

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