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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Nov;65 Suppl 3:iii25-33. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkq298.

Complicated urinary tract infections: practical solutions for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. Ann.Pallet@suht.swest.nhs.uk

Abstract

Resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has been increasing, particularly over the last 6 years. This is mainly due to the spread of strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) such as CTX-M enzymes or AmpC β-lactamases. Many of the isolates producing these enzymes are also resistant to trimethoprim, quinolones and aminoglycosides, often due to plasmid co-expression of other resistance mechanisms. CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli often occurs in the community and as E. coli is one of the commonest organisms causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) the choice of agents to treat these infections is diminishing. Novel combinations of antibiotics are being used in the community and broad-spectrum agents such as carbapenems are being used increasingly as empirical treatment for severe infections. Of particular concern therefore are reports in the UK of organisms that produce carbapenemases. As resistance is becoming more widespread, prudent use of antimicrobials is imperative and, as asymptomatic bacteriuria is typically benign in the elderly, antibiotics should not be prescribed without clinical signs of UTI. The use of antibiotics as suppressive therapy or long-term prophylaxis may no longer be defensible.

PMID:
20876625
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkq298
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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