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Cancer Invest. 2011 Jan;29(1):42-8. doi: 10.3109/07357907.2010.512597. Epub 2010 Sep 27.

Clinical significance of GPR56, transglutaminase 2, and NF-κB in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

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Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.


Proteins do not operate as individual units, and components of intracellular canonical pathways often cross talk in tumor genesis. We hypothesized that G-protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56), transglutaminase (TG2), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) may collaborate in interconnected pathways and contribute to the aggressive behavior of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Immunohistochemical analysis of GPR56, TG2, and NF-κB was carried out using ESCC tissue microarrays. Immunostaining of all the three proteins revealed a significant increase in their expression in ESCCs as compared with normal epithelia and correlated with their concomitant expression. A significant correlation between GPR56, TG2, and NF-κB was observed that correlated with nodal metastasis and tumor invasion in ESCCs.

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