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J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2011;60(1):1-9. doi: 10.1093/jmicro/dfq066. Epub 2010 Sep 24.

In situ hydride formation in titanium during focused ion milling.

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School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK.


It is well known that titanium and its alloys are sensitive to electrolytes and thus hydrides are commonly observed in electropolished foils. In this study, focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to prepare thin foils of titanium and its alloys for transmission electron microscopy. The results show the following: (i) titanium hydrides were observed in pure titanium, (ii) the preparation of a bulk sample in water or acid solution resulted in the formation of more hydrides and (iii) FIB milling aids the precipitation of hydrides, but there were never any hydrides in Ti64 and Ti5553.

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