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Pathophysiology. 2011 Apr;18(2):159-64. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2010.08.003. Epub 2010 Sep 24.

Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Setaria italica seeds in STZ diabetic rats.

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Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, AP, India.



Setaria italica is commonly known as Foxtail millet. In India it is chiefly cultivated in Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. It can be eaten as a sweet or savory food in all ways that rice is used. Due to the presence of high fiber content, it is suggested as a food for diabetic patients in India.


To evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic potential of S. italica seeds in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.


Anti hyperglycemic activity of different doses of S. italica seed aqueous extract (SISAE) was evaluated by oral administration of SISAE in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and it was compared with that of Glibeclamide, a standard oral hypoglycemic agent. The effect of long-term treatment with 300mgofSISAE/kgb.w./day on blood glucose, glycemic control and serum lipids was evaluated in normal and diabetic rats.


The dose of 300mg of SISAE/kgb.w. produced a significant fall (70%) in blood glucose in diabetic rats after 6h of administration of the extract. None of the doses of the SISAE could produce any change in blood glucose levels of normal rats. After 30 days of treatment with 300mgofSISAE/kgb.w./day there was a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose associated with a significant improvement in glycemic control as evidenced by lower levels of HbA1c in diabetic treated rats when compared to those in untreated diabetic rats The aqueous extract also exhibited significant hypolipidemic effect which is evident from lower levels of triglycerides, total, LDL and VLDL cholesterol and increase in the levels of HDL cholesterol in diabetic treated rats compared to those in diabetic untreated rats. The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of the aqueous extract could be due to the presence of alkaloids or glycosides as active principles.


These findings demonstrate that the aqueous extract of S. italica seeds have excellent antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities and thus have great potential as a source for natural health products.

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