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Phys Rev Lett. 2010 Aug 13;105(7):073602. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons.

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Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università La Sapienza, Roma 00185, Italy.


Optimal quantum cloning is the process of making one or more copies of an arbitrary unknown input quantum state with the highest possible fidelity. All reported demonstrations of quantum cloning have so far been limited to copying two-dimensional quantum states, or qubits. We report the experimental realization of the optimal quantum cloning of four-dimensional quantum states, or ququarts, encoded in the polarization and orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom of photons. Our procedure, based on the symmetrization method, is also shown to be generally applicable to quantum states of arbitrarily high dimension-or qudits-and to be scalable to an arbitrary number of copies, in all cases remaining optimal. Furthermore, we report the bosonic coalescence of two single-particle entangled states.

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