Send to

Choose Destination
Health Educ Res. 2010 Dec;25(6):991-1007. doi: 10.1093/her/cyq052. Epub 2010 Sep 23.

A cultural research approach to instrument development: the case of breast and cervical cancer screening among Latino and Anglo women.

Author information

Department of Psychology, Loma Linda University, CA 92354, USA.


To illustrate the implementation of a bottom-up approach to the study of culture in health disparities, this article describes the development of a cultural cancer screening scale (CCSS) using mixed methodologies. The aim was to identify cultural factors relevant to breast and cervical cancer screening, develop an instrument to assess them and examine its preliminary psychometric properties among Latin American (Latino) and non-Latino White (Anglo) women in Southern California. Seventy-eight Latino and Anglo women participated in semi-structured interviews, which were content coded based on Triandis' methods for the analysis of subjective culture. Based on the emerging cultural elements, items relevant to cancer screening were developed and pilot tested with 161 participants. After the instrument was refined, 314 Latino and Anglo women from various socioeconomic backgrounds completed the CCSS and data were factor analyzed resulting in five cultural factors: cancer screening fatalism, negative beliefs about health professionals, catastrophic disease expectations, symptomatic deterrents and sociocultural deterrents. The instrument demonstrated measurement equivalence, adequate reliability and predictive validity. The research and the CCSS are discussed in terms of implications for the study of culture in relation to health disparities and the development of evidence-based interventions with culturally diverse populations and their health professionals.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center