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Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Oct;116(4):949-55. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181f1039f.

Correlates of seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women in Georgia and Rhode Island.

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Applied Sciences Branch, Women's Health and Fertility Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3724, USA.



To identify facilitators of and barriers to pregnant women being vaccinated against seasonal influenza by identifying factors associated with influenza vaccination during pregnancy among women who had recently given birth to a live infant.


We analyzed pooled data from Georgia (n=2,692) and Rhode Island (n=2,732) participants in the 2006 and 2007 surveys of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System, which conducts cross-sectional surveys of women with live births. SUDAAN software was used for analysis to account for complex survey design. We estimated rates of seasonal influenza vaccination among pregnant women in Georgia and Rhode Island and identified factors associated with being vaccinated.


The prevalence of immunization for seasonal influenza in 2006 and 2007 combined was 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.9-21.1) in Georgia and 31.9% (95% CI 29.8-34.0) in Rhode Island. Multivariable analyses showed that in Georgia, multiparous women were significantly less likely to have been vaccinated than primiparous women (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.89). In Georgia, among those not vaccinated, 43% indicated that their health care providers did not mention anything about the seasonal influenza vaccination. In Rhode Island, women whose health care provider encouraged them to be vaccinated (adjusted OR 56.62; 95% CI 37.43-85.63) and those who did not smoke cigarettes (adjusted OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.25-2.94) were significantly more likely to be vaccinated.


Our findings indicate a need for strategies to promote seasonal influenza vaccine use among pregnant women. Health care providers can play a significant role in increasing influenza vaccination coverage rates among pregnant women by advising women to be vaccinated and by addressing their concerns about vaccine safety.



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