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Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 Dec;16(12):2173-9. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21332.

Bacterial induction of proinflammatory cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease.

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Division of Digestive Diseases, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.


It has become increasingly clear that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develops on the background of genetic defects in the host, conveying an increased susceptibility to an environmental antigen or antigens. The environmental factor implicated in the pathophysiology of gut inflammation, which is undergoing increased scrutiny, is the intestinal flora. The intestinal flora as a whole and specific bacteria and their products have been found to trigger cytokine expression in various cell types. Consistently, multiple bacterial strains were found to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in macrophage and epithelial cell systems, respectively, in particular in Crohn's disease. Interestingly, various cell types from patients with IBD display an increased susceptibility to specific bacterial products, including flagellin, pili, and lipopolysaccharides. It remains to be determined whether additional effector proteins regulate cytokine expression and the aberrant mucosal immune response in IBD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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