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Head Neck. 2011 Feb;33(2):257-66. doi: 10.1002/hed.21442.

Downregulation of Ches1 and other novel genes in oral cancer cells chronically exposed to areca nut extract.

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Graduate School of Medical Biotechnology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, Providence of China.



This study was undertaken to identify the genes in response to areca nut extract, a potential carcinogen of oral cancer.


Two oral cancer sublines chronically treated with areca nut extract were established. Methods such as microarray and immunohistochemistry were used to screen and validate the genes' altered expressions in areca nut extract-sublines or in cancer tissues.


A total of 35 genes were differentially expressed in both sublines. Several functional pathways were significantly altered. Six genes were confirmed over 2-fold of changes, including Ches1. Functional analyses showed that overexpression of Ches1 suppressed cell growth and arrested cells in the G2/M phase. Consistently, this gene has reduced expression in 52% of oral cancer tissues, which was significantly correlated with the areca nut chewing habit of patients (p = .04).


We identified 35 candidates and validated 6 genes that may be associated with areca nut-induced oral cancer. Loss of Ches1 may be attributed to areca nut extract-induced oral carcinogenesis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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