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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Dec 15;55(5):590-6. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181f5b3d1.

Treatment intensification has no effect on the HIV-1 central nervous system infection in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antiretroviral treatment (ART) significantly reduces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 RNA levels and residual viremia is less frequently found in CSF than in blood. However, persistent intrathecal immunoactivation is common, even after several years of ART. To investigate whether low-level CSF viremia and residual immunoactivation within the central nervous system (CNS) derive from ongoing local viral replication, we conducted a study of treatment intensification in patients on effective ART.

METHODS:

Ten patients on ART with plasma HIV RNA <50 copies per milliliter for >18 months were included. Intensification was given for in total 8 weeks: 4 weeks with maraviroc or lopinavir/ritonavir (good CNS penetration), and 4 weeks with enfuvirtide (poor CNS penetration). Lumbar punctures were performed 4 weeks before, at intensification commencement, at switchover after 4 weeks, at the conclusion of, and 4 weeks after the intensification period.

RESULTS:

No significant changes in HIV RNA, neopterin, β2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G index, albumin ratio, and CD4(+) T-cell count were observed, either in CSF or blood, neither before, during, nor after the intensification periods.

CONCLUSIONS:

ART intensification did not reduce residual CSF HIV RNA levels or intrathecal immunoactivation in patients on ART. These findings do not support an ongoing viral replication in CNS.

PMID:
20847699
DOI:
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181f5b3d1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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