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J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010 Jul-Sep;24(3):229-37.

VEGF, substance P and stress, new aspects: a revisited study.


Mast cells play an essential role in diverse physiological and pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis, malignancy, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis and arthritis, directly interact with bacteria, and appear to play a vital role in host defense against pathogens. Mast cells could be recruited in the inflammatory site, by MCP-1, RANTES and SCF, to selectively secrete proinflammatory molecules; these could include growth factors, histamine, which is mitogenic (H1) and an immunosuppressant (H2), neovascularization agents, such as heparin, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as proteases that could permit new blood vessel formation. Neurogenic inflammation involves vasodilation and plasma protein extravasation in response to neural stimulation. Upon stimulation, sensory neurons release Substance P and other neuropeptides and activate neurokinin-1 receptors leading to plasma protein extravasation from post-capillary venules. Substance P is a neuropeptide that is released from nerve endings in many tissues and plays an important role in immunological and inflammatory states, and it is also a mediator of tissue injury, asthma, arthritis, allergy and autoimmune diseases. SP-positive nerve fibers and mast cell contacts are increased by acute stress in mice leading to dermal mast cell degranulation. VEGF is produced by flammatory cells. IL-33 is the newest inflammatory member of the IL-1 cytokine family and we show here that SP can induce VEGF secretion from mast cells and IL-33 augments the effect of SP in VEGF transcription and translation protein.

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