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Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):192-6.

Cyclooxygenase-2, p53 and glucose transporter-1 as predictors of malignancy in the development of gallbladder carcinomas.

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Institute of Histology & Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.


Gallbladder carcinoma is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute characteristics of the disease are the high mortality rate due to the late discovery of a tumor and the low therapeutic possibilities except by surgical intervention. In oncology we can predict the outcome of the disease with a combination of classical standard clinico/pathological parameters (stage of the tumors, differentiation) and the intrinsic genetic and biochemical properties of the tumor. Such intrinzic properties of the tumors that are connected with the outcome of the disease are the denominators (markers). The author searched extensively for the expression and influence of 3 markers included in chronic inflammation and early carcinogenesis, cell cycle regulation and tissue hypoxia: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p53 gene and glucose transporter-1 protein (GLUT-1). The author discusses their possible role in the development as well as fighting this disease, if specific medications targeting them were available.

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