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Dev Dyn. 2010 Nov;239(11):2860-74. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.22421.

Regulation of Tbx22 during facial and palatal development.

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Developmental Biology, Institute of Biology 1, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.


Mutations in the gene encoding the T-box transcription factor TBX22 cause X-linked cleft palate and ankyloglossia in humans. Here we show that Tbx22 expression during facial and palatal development is regulated by FGF and BMP signaling. Our results demonstrate that FGF8 induces Tbx22 in the early face while BMP4 represses and thus restricts its expression. This regulation is conserved between chicken and mouse, although the Tbx22-expression patterns differ considerably between these two species. We suggest that these species-specific differences may result at least in part from differences in the spatiotemporal patterns of BMP activity, but we exclude a direct repression of Tbx22 by the BMP-inducible transcriptional repressor MSX1. Together these findings help to integrate Tbx22 into the molecular network of factors regulating facial development.

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