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Mucosal Immunol. 2010 Nov;3(6):556-66. doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.54. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Mucosal adjuvants and long-term memory development with special focus on CTA1-DD and other ADP-ribosylating toxins.

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MIVAC, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.


The ultimate goal for vaccination is to stimulate protective immunological memory. Protection against infectious diseases not only relies on the magnitude of the humoral immune response, but more importantly on the quality and longevity of it. Adjuvants are critical components of most non-living vaccines. Although little attention has been given to qualitative aspects of the choice of vaccine adjuvant, emerging data demonstrate that this function may be central to vaccine efficacy. In this review we describe efforts to understand more about how adjuvants influence qualitative aspects of memory development. We describe recent advances in understanding how vaccines induce long-lived plasma and memory B cells, and focus our presentation on the germinal center reaction. As mucosal vaccination requires powerful adjuvants, we have devoted much attention to the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylating cholera toxin and the CTA1-DD adjuvants as examples of how mucosal adjuvants can influence induction of long-term memory.

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