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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Oct;14(10):1244-51.

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in children with human immunodeficiency virus in rural South Africa.

Author information

1
Tugela Ferry Care and Research Collaboration, Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Abstract

SETTING:

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has been documented worldwide, but reports of XDR-TB in children are extremely limited.

OBJECTIVE:

To report the characteristics of pediatric XDR-TB patients in rural South Africa.

DESIGN:

We retrospectively reviewed children with sputum culture-confirmed XDR-TB from Tugela Ferry, South Africa, from January 2006 to December 2007. Demographic, clinical and microbiologic data were abstracted from medical records.

RESULTS:

Four children aged 6-8 years with XDR-TB were reviewed. Two had previous histories of TB. All were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected orphans; three received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) before XDR-TB diagnosis. All had clinical and radiographic improvement and sputum culture conversion while on standardized XDR-TB treatment and HAART. Two tolerated concomitant XDR-TB and HIV treatment well. Two experienced neuropsychiatric side effects related to cycloserine. All have survived >24 months and all were cured. Prior to XDR-TB diagnosis, the children had resided in the hospital's pediatric ward for a median of 8 months (range 5-17), including a 3-month overlapping period.

CONCLUSIONS:

XDR-TB is a microbiologic diagnosis that, even with HIV co-infection, can be successfully identified. Concurrent XDR-TB and HIV therapy is feasible and effective in children, although more research is needed into potential overlapping toxicities. Nosocomial transmission is suggested, calling for infection control policies in pediatric wards.

PMID:
20843414
PMCID:
PMC3030274
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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