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Int Q Community Health Educ. 1991 Jan 1;12(4):293-315. doi: 10.2190/GEK1-UE2B-HWQ8-3CJB.

Case study: application of precede and proceed as a framework for designing culturally sensitive diarrhea prevention programs and policy in arab countries.

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Indiana University, Bloomington.


This study utilized the diagnostic approach of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. The constituents of this model were identified by utilizing participant observation field studies, traditionally applied by ethnographers to collect data describing the multiple facets of a culture, including linguistic patterns that capture and define characteristic semantics and viewpoints. The household study sample was randomly selected from a defined list of households known to have at least one child less than five years of age. An open-ended questionnaire format was used to interview the 115 mothers in the selected household sample. Kalama, the study community, is characteristically an agricultural village, situated in the Governorate of Kaliobia and located approximately 25 km (about 15.5 miles) from the capital, Cairo, Egypt. The latest 1986 census indicates a population size of about 13,328 people in 4,818 households. There were sixty-five deaths occurring among children less than five years in 1986. The causes of death were primarily related to diarrhea, followed by upper respiratory infections, congenital anomalies and birth injuries. This study outlines a) practices related to the management of diarrhea, including the administration of foods and drinks during such episodes; b) influences of governmental policies; and c) recommended strategies for overcoming barriers and promoting effective diarrhea intervention programs.

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