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J Clin Oncol. 2010 Oct 20;28(30):4575-80. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2010.29.6244. Epub 2010 Sep 13.

Phase III randomized trial assessing rofecoxib in the adjuvant setting of colorectal cancer: final results of the VICTOR trial.

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Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.



Laboratory and case-control studies suggest a pivotal role for the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether the COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib could reduce recurrence and improve survival when administered in the adjuvant setting of colorectal cancer (CRC).


Patients who had undergone potentially curative surgery and completion of adjuvant therapy for stage II and III CRC were randomly assigned to receive rofecoxib (20 mg daily) or placebo. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Where formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples were available, COX-2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical outcome.


Two thousand four hundred thirty-four patients were entered onto the study. The trial was terminated early because of the worldwide withdrawal of rofecoxib. At this point, 1,167 patients had received rofecoxib and 1,160 patients had received placebo for median treatment durations of 7.4 and 8.2 months, respectively. For the rofecoxib and placebo arms, median follow-up times were 4.84 and 4.85 years, with 241 and 246 deaths and 297 and 329 recurrences, respectively. No difference was demonstrated in OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.16; P = .75) or recurrence (HR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04; P = .15) comparing the two groups. Tumor COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry was assessed for 871 patients, but neither prognostic nor predictive effects were observed.


In this study of abbreviated therapy in the adjuvant setting of CRC, rofecoxib did not improve OS or protect from recurrence in unselected patients. In addition, COX-2 expression did not correlate with prognosis overall or predict effectiveness of COX-2 inhibitors.

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