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Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010 Dec;29(6):1092-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2010.09.002. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that had received the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis showed earlier recovery in immunity and up-regulation of gene expressions after pH stress.

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Department of Aquaculture, College of Life Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC.


White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which had been immersed in seawater (35‰, pH 8.2) containing the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis at 0 (control), 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h, were transferred to seawater at pH 6.8, and the immune parameters and transcripts of the lipopolysaccharide- and β-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), and integrin β (IB) were examined 6-96 h post-transfer. Shrimp with no exposure to the hot-water extract and no pH change served as the background control. Results indicated that the hyaline cells, granular cells (including semi-granular cells), total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp transferred to seawater at pH 6.8 significantly decreased to the lowest at 6 h post-transfer. These immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) of the extract were significantly higher than those of control shrimp at 24-96 h post-transfer, and had returned to the background values earlier at 48-72 h post-transfer with significant transcripts of LGBP, PX, and IB at 24, 6, and 24 h, respectively, whereas these parameters of control shrimp returned to the original values at ≥96 h post-transfer.

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