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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Oct;26(10):1097-101. doi: 10.1089/aid.2010.0092. Epub 2010 Sep 13.

Naturally occurring polymorphisms and primary drug resistance profile among antiretroviral-naive individuals in Bangalore, India.

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  • 1St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India.


Although India has a large burden of HIV infection, good access to first-line antiretroviral therapy is widely available. However, understanding HIV resistance-associated mutations and polymorphisms is critical for continued success. The RT region of the HIV-1 pol gene was studied among 21 ART-naive HIV-1-infected individuals from South India. In addition, 421 published Indian HIV-1 subtype C sequences were analyzed for time trends in polymorphism frequency. Among primary isolates, all HIV-1 isolates were subtype C, and drug-resistant mutations were identified among two (9.56%) subjects. Mutations included E138A (etravirine resistance associated) and L210LS (thymidine analog mutation). The overall frequency of specific polymorphisms was similar to frequencies reported from different regions of India. Novel mutations were observed at positions Q23P/H and A129AG among isolates from our clinical cohort. Over a span of 10 years, the median polymorphism frequency among ART-naive subjects has remained unchanged, suggesting the slow evolution of HIV-1 subtype C in India.

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