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Indian J Nephrol. 2010 Apr;20(2):59-67. doi: 10.4103/0971-4065.65296.

Can we reduce the cardiovascular risk in peritoneal dialysis patients?

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1
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, U.S.A.

Abstract

Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), including those treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), have a high risk for death, particularly from cardiovascular (CV) causes. Traditional risk factors for CV disease - like hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia - are highly prevalent, often severe, and more difficult to treat in dialysis patients. Development of strategies for CV risk reduction in dialysis patients is complicated by epidemiologic studies that demonstrate paradoxical associations of some of the traditional risk factors with mortality. The difficulty is enhanced by either a paucity or negative findings of studies that have tested risk modification by targeting traditional CV risk factors. It is also clear that neither the prevalence nor the severity of traditional risk factors explains the substantial increase in risk for death associated with ESRD; this has led to identification of several nontraditional risk factors. Among these, systemic inflammation, disordered mineral metabolism, and long-term CV risk from infectious complications appear the most promising. However, the evidence in favor of the importance of these risk factors is largely limited to observational studies. In this review, we present a critical analysis of the literature to assist the clinician to reduce the CV risk of ESRD patients treated with PD.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular disease; dyslipidemia; end-stage renal disease; hypertension; infection; mineral metabolism; mortality; peritoneal dialysis

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