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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Nov;90(2):202-8. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2010.08.005. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

The prevalence and risk factors for coeliac disease among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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Second University Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.



Our aim was to determine in children with T1DM the prevalence of positive antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG IgA) as indices of coeliac disease (CD), as well as its clinical presentation, its determinants and its association with thyroid (anti-TG, anti-TPO) and pancreatic b-cell autoimmunity (anti-GAD).


The study included 105 children and adolescents with T1DM, aged (mean±SD) 12.44±4.76 years, with a T1DM duration of 4.41±3.70 years.


Fifty of our patients (47.6%) were positive for anti-GAD, 9/105 (8.6%) for anti-tTG IgA and 21/105(20%) for anti-thyroid antibodies. The anti-tTG IgA (+) children, in comparison with the rest of the study population, were of younger age (9.31 vs. 12.74 years, p=0.038), shorter diabetes duration (2.16 vs. 4.62 years, p=0.056) and had mild growth impairment (height SDS: -0.55 vs. +0.20, p=0.055). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of anti-tTG IgA (+) was associated with younger age and shorter T1DM duration. Only 5/9 (55.6%) children with high titres of anti-tTG IgA developed mild gastrointestinal symptoms or growth retardation and had histological findings typical of CD.


The prevalence of anti-tTG IgA positivity among T1DM children was 8.6% and its occurrence was associated with younger age and short diabetes duration. Since CD presents in T1DM patients asymptomatically or with non-specific symptoms, periodic autoantibody screening is necessary for its early diagnosis.

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