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Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug;24(4):625-34. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.05.002.

Metformin treatment for Type 2 diabetes in pregnancy?

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Wolfson Diabetes and Endocrinology Clinic, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK.


Metformin lowers blood glucose by reducing hepatic glucose output, increasing insulin sensitivity and enhancing peripheral glucose uptake. Metformin is widely used in women with Type 2 diabetes of child-bearing age, many of whom become pregnant. Studies to date in Type 2 diabetes in pregnancy, gestational diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome are reassuring. Metformin is not considered teratogenic. There is sufficient evidence that metformin is safe used throughout pregnancy, with no worsening of obstetric or perinatal outcomes. Women may benefit from the lesser weight gain. The long-term risks to the offspring remain inadequately researched, with no evidence of harm up to 2 years, and no suggestions of later complications in countries using metformin for many years. Metformin is recommended for use in pregnancies complicated by Type 2 diabetes, but women should be informed of the evidence regarding its associated risks and benefits to enable an informed choice over its use.

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