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Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2010 Sep 13;8:98. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-8-98.

Patient- and provider-related determinants of generic and specific health-related quality of life of patients with chronic systolic heart failure in primary care: a cross-sectional study.

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Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.



Identifying the determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systolic heart failure (CHF) is rare in primary care; studies often lack a defined sample, a comprehensive set of variables and clear HRQOL outcomes. Our aim was to explore the impactof such a set of variables on generic and disease-specific HRQOL.


In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated data from 318 eligible patients. HRQOL measures used were the SF-36 (Physical/Mental Component Summary, PCS/MCS) and four domains of the KCCQ (Functional status, Quality of life, Self efficacy, Social limitation). Potential determinants (instruments) included socio-demographical variables (age, sex, socio-economic status: SES), clinical (e.g. NYHA class, LVEF, NT-proBNP levels, multimorbidity (CIRS-G)), depression (PHQ-9), behavioural (EHFScBs and prescribing) and provider (e.g. list size of and number. of GPs in practice) variables. We performed linear (mixed) regression modelling accounting for clustering.


Patients were predominantly male (71.4%), had a mean age of 69.0 (SD: 10.4) years, 12.9% had major depression, according to PHQ-9. Across the final regression models, eleven determinants explained 27% to 55% of variance (frequency across models, lowest/highest β): Depression (6×, -0.3/-0.7); age (4×, -0.1/-0.2); multimorbidity (4×, 0.1); list size (2×, -0.2); SES (2×, 0.1/0.2); and each of the following once: no. of GPs per practice, NYHA class, COPD, history of CABG surgery, aldosterone antagonist medication and Self-care (0.1/-0.2/-0.2/0.1/-0.1/-0.2).


HRQOL was determined by a variety of established individual variables. Additionally the presence of multimorbidity burden, behavioural (self-care) and provider determinants may influence clinicians in tailoring care to individual patients and highlight future research priorities.

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