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Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011 Jan;139(1):67-72. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.08.001. Epub 2010 Aug 10.

In vitro identification and verification of inflammatory biomarkers in swine.

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US FDA/CVM, Laurel, MD 20708, USA.


Currently there are no non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) approved for the control of inflammation in swine due to a lack of validated animal models and suitable biomarkers to assess drug efficacy. This study investigates the differential expression of genes altered in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation which may serve as indicators of NSAID efficacy. Unstimulated whole blood from swine was mixed with tissue culture media, stimulated with LPS, and RNA extracted at the following time points 0h, 1h, 3h, 24h and 48h. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed using a commercial swine DNA microarray. The DNA microarray was utilized as a screen to determine potential biomarkers, focusing on the genes that exhibited the greatest degree of differential expression. A master list of 57 genes was formed based on the differential expression as a result of the stimulation. Following analysis, 12 genes whose expressions were significantly altered (8 up- and 4 down-regulated) were chosen for verification via quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression of 11 of the 12 genes chosen via the microarray analyses. Specifically, traditional genes such as SAA, G-CSF, and IL-10 were up-regulated, while CD4 was down-regulated; all of the genes were altered by 24h or 48h post-stimulation. We demonstrate here that expression of these 11 genes is altered as a direct result of LPS stimulation and consequently inflammation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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