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J Org Chem. 2010 Oct 1;75(19):6463-7. doi: 10.1021/jo1011619.

(2)H,(15)N-substituted nitroxides as sensitive probes for electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.

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Center for Biomedical Engineering and Technology, and Center for EPR Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.


Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) using nitroxides is an emergent imaging method for studying in vivo physiology, including O(2) distribution in various tissues. Such imaging capabilities would allow O(2) mapping in tumors and in different brain regions following hypoxia or drug abuse. We have recently demonstrated that the anion of 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxyl (2) can be entrapped in brain tissue to quantitate O(2) concentration in vivo. To increase the sensitivity of O(2) measurement by EPR imaging, we synthesized 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetra((2)H(3))methyl-1-(3,4,4-(2)H(3),1-(15)N)pyrrolidinyloxyl (7). EPR spectroscopic measurements demonstrate that this fully isotopically substituted nitroxide markedly improves signal-to-noise ratio and, therefore, the sensitivity of EPR imaging. The new isotopically substituted nitroxide shows increased sensitivity to changes in O(2) concentration, which will enable more accurate O(2) measurement in tissues using EPRI.

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