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Prev Med. 2010 Nov;51(5):408-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.08.014. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Cardiovascular risk according to educational status in India.

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Department of Medicine, Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur, India.



Influence of socioeconomic status on cardiovascular risk has not been well studied in low income countries. To determine risks in various educational status (ES) subjects we performed a study in India.


Epidemiological study was performed in years 1999-2003 in Jaipur (India) for coronary risk factors among 1280 adults 20-59 years (men 619, women 661). ES was categorized into low (education ≤5 years); middle (6-12 years) and high (>12 years). Prevalence of risk factors and Framingham risk scores were determined.


Low ES was in 306, middle in 436 and high in 538. In low, middle and high ES respectively age-adjusted prevalence (%) of smoking was 19.0, 19.3, and 11.7; obesity 9.5, 16.7, and 22.1, hypertension 15.3, 30.5, and 44.0; hypercholesterolemia ≥200mg/dl 46.0, 48.4, and 54.6; low HDL cholesterol <40mg/dl 46.4, 56.4, and 38.3; metabolic syndrome 20.9, 25.7, and 28.6; and diabetes 6.9, 5.5, and 26.4. Framingham risk score was 5.7±4.8, 6.3±5.7 and 4.7±5.1 and calculated cardiovascular risk probability 5.2±5.7, 6.8±7.8 and 5.2±6.0 (P(trend)<0.05). Framingham risk score was significantly greater in low and middle ES (6.1±5.3) compared to high (4.7±5.1) (p<0.001). Adjustment for smoking attenuated the risk.


Low and middle educational status urban subjects in India have greater cardiovascular risk.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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