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Trends Biotechnol. 2010 Nov;28(11):552-60. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2010.08.002. Epub 2010 Aug 31.

Neuroimaging-based approaches in the brain-computer interface.

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Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Techniques to enable direct communication between the brain and computers/machines, such as the brain-computer interface (BCI) or the brain-machine interface (BMI), are gaining momentum in the neuroscientific realm, with potential applications ranging from medicine to general consumer electronics. Noninvasive BCI techniques based on neuroimaging modalities are reviewed in terms of their methodological approaches as well as their similarities and differences. Trends in automated data interpretation through machine learning algorithms are also introduced. Applications of functional neuromodulation techniques to BCI systems would allow for bidirectional communication between the brain and the computer. Such bidirectional interfaces can relay information directly from one brain to another using a computer as a medium, ultimately leading to the concept of a brain-to-brain interface (BBI).

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