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Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Dec 1;49(11):1655-65. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.08.025. Epub 2010 Aug 31.

Mouse brain plasmalogens are targets for hypochlorous acid-mediated modification in vitro and in vivo.

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Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Erratum in

  • Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Apr 1;50(7):903.


Plasmalogens, 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophospholipids, are significant constituents of cellular membranes and are essential for normal brain development. Plasmalogens, which contain a vinyl ether bond at the sn-1 position, are preferential targets for hypochlorous acid (HOCl), generated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) from H(2)O(2) and chloride ions. Because MPO is implicated in neurodegeneration, this study pursued two aims: (i) to investigate the reactivity of mouse brain plasmalogens toward HOCl in vitro and (ii) to obtain in vivo evidence for MPO-mediated brain plasmalogen modification. Liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry revealed plasmalogen modification in mouse brain lipid extracts at lower HOCl concentrations as observed for diacylphospholipids, resulting in the generation of 2-chloro fatty aldehydes and lysophospholipids. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine accumulation was transient, whereas lysophosphatidylcholine species containing saturated acyl residues remained stable. In vivo, a single, systemic endotoxin injection resulted in upregulation of cerebral MPO mRNA levels to a range comparable to that observed for tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2. This inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant decrease in several brain plasmalogen species and concomitant in vivo generation of 2-chlorohexadecanal. The present findings demonstrate that activation of the MPO-H(2)O(2)-chloride system under neuroinflammatory conditions results in oxidative attack of the total cerebral plasmalogen pool. As this lipid class is indispensable for normal neuronal function, HOCl-mediated plasmalogen modification is likely to compromise normal synaptic transmission.

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