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Mol Brain. 2010 Aug 31;3:24. doi: 10.1186/1756-6606-3-24.

The participation of NMDA receptors, PKC, and MAPK in the formation of memory following operant conditioning in Lymnaea.

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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada.



Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve information that has been learned. Intermediate term memory (ITM) that persists for up to 3 h requires new protein synthesis. Long term memory (LTM) that persists for at least 24 h requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. It has been shown in a number of different model systems that NMDA receptors, protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are all involved in the memory formation process.


Here we show that snails trained in control conditions are capable of forming, depending on the training procedure used, either ITM or LTM. However, blockage of NMDA receptors (MK 801), inhibition of PKC (GF109203X hydrochloride) and MAPK activity (UO126) prevent the formation of both ITM and LTM.


The injection of either U0126 or GF109203X, which inhibit MAPK and PKC activity respectively, 1 hour prior to training results in the inhibition of both ITM and LTM formation. We further found that NMDA receptor activity was necessary in order for both ITM and LTM formation.

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