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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Sep 14;107(37):16131-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1002603107. Epub 2010 Aug 30.

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta, CEBPD)-mediated nuclear import of FANCD2 by IPO4 augments cellular response to DNA damage.

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Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Signaling, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.


Maintenance of genomic integrity is an essential cellular function. We previously reported that the transcription factor and tumor suppressor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (C/EBPδ, CEBPD; also known as "NFIL-6β") promotes genomic stability. However, the molecular mechanism was not known. Here, we show that C/EBPδ is a DNA damage-induced gene, which supports survival of mouse bone marrow cells, mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), human fibroblasts, and breast tumor cells in response to the DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C (MMC). Using gene knockout, protein depletion, and overexpression studies, we found that C/EBPδ promotes monoubiquitination of the Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 protein (FANCD2), which is necessary for its function in replication-associated DNA repair. C/EBPδ interacts with FANCD2 and importin 4 (IPO4, also known as "Imp4" and "RanBP4") via separate domains, mediating FANCD2-IPO4 association and augmenting nuclear import of FANCD2, a prerequisite for its monoubiquitination. This study identifies a transcription-independent activity of C/EBPδ in the DNA damage response that may in part underlie its tumor suppressor function. Furthermore, we report a function of IPO4 and nuclear import in the Fanconi anemia pathway of DNA repair.

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