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Ann Plast Surg. 2011 Jan;66(1):16-23. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181d50e54.

The PreFACE: A preoperative psychosocial screen for elective facial cosmetic surgery and cosmetic dentistry patients.

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St. Vincent's Hospital Mental Health Service, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.



Currently no brief and objective screening protocol exists to assist surgeons and dentists in the identification of patients who are likely to report unsatisfactory outcomes after cosmetic surgery interventions. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the relationship between postoperative dissatisfaction and preoperative characteristics (psychiatric disturbance, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, dysmorphic concern, and body image), and (2) empirically derive a preoperative psychosocial screening instrument to identify patients who may require preoperative assessment or counseling.


The sample composed of 84 patients (69 women and 15 men) undergoing elective cosmetic facial surgery or cosmetic dentistry. Before surgery, a self-report questionnaire was administered to the patients, which comprised questions designed to evaluate many of the psychosocial characteristics thought to be associated with unsatisfactory outcomes. Six months after surgery, a questionnaire was administered to the patients, which included items evaluating postoperative satisfaction.


The findings revealed that preoperative psychiatric disturbance, anxiety, depression, low appearance evaluation, and body areas dissatisfaction are psychosocial risk factors that indicate an increased likelihood of patient dissatisfaction with surgical outcomes. The PreFACE (Preoperative FAcial Cosmetic surgery Evaluation), a brief objective preoperative screening questionnaire that can be easily and efficiently administered to elective facial cosmetic surgery and cosmetic dentistry patients, was empirically derived. It is able to identify most patients who are likely to express dissatisfaction and minimizes the selection of those who will express satisfaction. The PreFACE is recommended for validation using other cosmetic surgery populations.


The routine use of PreFACE is recommended for identification of patients who may benefit from preoperative counseling.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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