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J Chromatogr. 1990 Oct 19;519(1):1-29.

Flow-through particles for the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of biomolecules: perfusion chromatography.

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PerSeptive Biosystems Inc., Cambridge, MA 02139.


This paper reports a new technique for reducing resistance to stagnant mobile phase mass transfer without sacrificing high adsorbent capacity or necessitating extremely high pressure operation. The technique involves the flow of liquid through a porous chromatographic particle, and has thus been termed "perfusion chromatography". This is accomplished with 6000-8000 A pores which transect the particle. Data from electron microscopy, column efficiency, frontal analysis and theoretical modelling all suggest that mobile phase will flow through these large pores. In this manner, solutes enter the interior of the particles through a combination of convective and diffusional transport, with convection dominating for Peclet numbers greater than one. The implications of flow through particles on bandspreading, resolution and dynamic loading capacity are examined. It is shown that the rate of solute transport is strongly coupled to mobile phase velocity such that bandspreading, resolution of proteins and dynamic loading capacity are unaffected by increases in mobile phase velocity up to several thousand centimeters per hour. The surface area of this very large-pore diameter material is enhanced by using a network of smaller, 500-1500 A interconnecting pores between the throughpores. Scanning electron micrographs show that the pore network is continuous and that no point in the matrix is more than 5000-10,000 A from a through-pore. As a consequence, diffusional path lengths are minimized and the large porous particles take on the transport characteristics of much smaller particles but with a fraction of the pressure drop. Capacity and resolution studies show that these materials bind and separate an amount of protein equivalent to that of conventional high-performance liquid chromatography as well as low performance agarose-based media at greater than 10-100 times higher mobile phase velocity with no loss in resolution.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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