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J Vet Intern Med. 1990 Nov-Dec;4(6):306-14.

Endotoxic shock. Part II: A review of treatment.

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Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh 27606.


Treatment of endotoxemia is difficult because of the numerous mediators involved in the body's response to endotoxin. There are three possible approaches in treating endotoxemia. The interaction of endotoxin with target cells can be blocked by inducing tolerance, decreasing plasma endotoxin concentrations, or interfering with endotoxin binding. Once endotoxin has interacted with target cells, endogenous mediators can be blocked with a huge variety of drugs. The effects of corticosteroids, cyclooxygenase blockers, leukotriene blockers, platelet activating factor blockers, tumor necrosis factor blockers, oxygen radical scavengers, opiate antagonists, antihistamines, calcium channel blockers are detailed. Supportive care of the endotoxemic patient continues to be a critical aspect of treatment. Controversies regarding solutions to use for volume support, vasoactive and cardiostimulant drugs, metabolic support, and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation are reviewed.

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