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J Virol. 2010 Nov;84(21):10965-73. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01335-10. Epub 2010 Aug 25.

Novel Nipah virus immune-antagonism strategy revealed by experimental and computational study.

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1
Center for Translational Systems Biology, Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave Levy Place, Box 1137, Annenberg Building 14-94B, Box 1137, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Abstract

Nipah virus is an emerging pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. It expresses several antagonist proteins that subvert the immune response and that may contribute to its pathogenicity. Studies of its biology are difficult due to its high pathogenicity and requirement for biosafety level 4 containment. We integrated experimental and computational methods to elucidate the effects of Nipah virus immune antagonists. Individual Nipah virus immune antagonists (phosphoprotein and V and W proteins) were expressed from recombinant Newcastle disease viruses, and the responses of infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were determined. We developed an ordinary differential equation model of the infectious process that that produced results with a high degree of correlation with these experimental results. In order to simulate the effects of wild-type virus, the model was extended to incorporate published experimental data on the time trajectories of immune-antagonist production. These data showed that the RNA-editing mechanism utilized by the wild-type Nipah virus to produce immune antagonists leads to a delay in the production of the most effective immune antagonists, V and W. Model simulations indicated that this delay caused a disconnection between attenuation of the antiviral response and suppression of inflammation. While the antiviral cytokines were efficiently suppressed at early time points, some early inflammatory cytokine production occurred, which would be expected to increase vascular permeability and promote virus spread and pathogenesis. These results suggest that Nipah virus has evolved a unique immune-antagonist strategy that benefits from controlled expression of multiple antagonist proteins with various potencies.

PMID:
20739535
PMCID:
PMC2953155
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.01335-10
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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