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J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 19;285(47):36945-57. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.127738. Epub 2010 Aug 25.

Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency increases cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cognitive deficits in APP/PS1DeltaE9 mice.

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Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219, USA.


A hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels, accompanied by cognitive decline. Previously, we showed that human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) decreases Aβ(40) aggregation and toxicity. Here we demonstrate that apoA-I in lipidated or non-lipidated form prevents the formation of high molecular weight aggregates of Aβ(42) and decreases Aβ(42) toxicity in primary brain cells. To determine the effects of apoA-I on AD phenotype in vivo, we crossed APP/PS1ΔE9 to apoA-I(KO) mice. Using a Morris water maze, we demonstrate that the deletion of mouse Apoa-I exacerbates memory deficits in APP/PS1ΔE9 mice. Further characterization of APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-I(KO) mice showed that apoA-I deficiency did not affect amyloid precursor protein processing, soluble Aβ oligomer levels, Aβ plaque load, or levels of insoluble Aβ in brain parenchyma. To examine the effect of Apoa-I deletion on cerebral amyloid angiopathy, we measured insoluble Aβ isolated from cerebral blood vessels. Our data show that in APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-I(KO) mice, insoluble Aβ(40) is increased more than 10-fold, and Aβ(42) is increased 1.5-fold. The increased levels of deposited amyloid in the vessels of cortices and hippocampi of APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-I(KO) mice, measured by X-34 staining, confirmed the results. Finally, we demonstrate that lipidated and non-lipidated apoA-I significantly decreased Aβ toxicity against brain vascular smooth muscle cells. We conclude that lack of apoA-I aggravates the memory deficits in APP/PS1ΔE9 mice in parallel to significantly increased cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

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