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J Biol Chem. 2010 Oct 29;285(44):34269-78. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.143008. Epub 2010 Aug 24.

A novel cytoplasmic adaptor for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and thyroid receptor functions as a Derepressor of RAR in the absence of retinoic acid.

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Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, 98 Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747, Korea.


In most mammalian cells, the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is nuclear rather than cytoplasmic, regardless of its cognate ligand, retinoic acid (RA). In testis Sertoli cells, however, RAR is retained in the cytoplasm and moves to the nucleus only when RA is supplied. This led us to identify a protein that regulates the translocation of RAR. From yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a novel RAR-interacting protein called CART1 (cytoplasmic adaptor for RAR and TR). Systematic interaction assays using deletion mutants showed that the C-terminal CoRNR box of CART1 was responsible for the interaction with the NCoR binding region of RAR and TR. Such interaction was impaired in the presence of ligand RA, as further determined by GST pulldown assays in vitro and immunoprecipitation assays in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy showed that unliganded RAR was captured by CART1 in the cytoplasm, whereas liganded RAR was liberated and moved to the nucleus. Overexpression of CART1 blocked the transcriptional repressing activity of unliganded apoRAR, mediated by corepressor NCoR in the nucleus. CART1 siRNA treatment in a mouse Sertoli cell line, TM4, allowed RAR to move to the nucleus and blocked the derepressing function of CART1, suggesting that CART1 might be a cytoplasmic, testis-specific derepressor of RAR.

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