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J Med Chem. 2010 Sep 23;53(18):6706-19. doi: 10.1021/jm100814g.

Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of halogenated N-(2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl)ethyl)benzamides: discovery of an isoform-selective small molecule phospholipase D2 inhibitor.

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Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6600, USA.


Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylcholine to the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. Two mammalian isoforms of PLD have been identified, PLD1 and PLD2, which share 53% sequence identity and are subject to different regulatory mechanisms. Inhibition of PLD enzymatic activity leads to increased cancer cell apoptosis, decreased cancer cell invasion, and decreased metastasis of cancer cells; therefore, the development of isoform-specific, PLD inhibitors is a novel approach for the treatment of cancer. Previously, we developed potent dual PLD1/PLD2, PLD1-specific (>1700-fold selective), and moderately PLD2-preferring (>10-fold preferring) inhibitors. Here, we describe a matrix library strategy that afforded the most potent (PLD2 IC(50) = 20 nM) and selective (75-fold selective versus PLD1) PLD2 inhibitor to date, N-(2-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl)ethyl)-2-naphthamide (22a), with an acceptable DMPK profile. Thus, these new isoform-selective PLD inhibitors will enable researchers to dissect the signaling roles and therapeutic potential of individual PLD isoforms to an unprecedented degree.

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