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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;49(9):898-905.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2010.02.014. Epub 2010 May 14.

Family-based genome-wide association scan of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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  • 1Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street-Warren 705, Boston, MA 02114, USA.



Genes likely play a substantial role in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic architecture of the disorder is unknown, and prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not identified a genome-wide significant association. We have conducted a third, independent, multisite GWAS of DSM-IV-TR ADHD.


Families were ascertained at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH; N = 309 trios), Washington University at St. Louis (WASH-U; N = 272 trios), and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA; N = 156 trios). Genotyping was conducted with the Illumina Human1M or Human1M-Duo BeadChip platforms. After applying quality control filters, association with ADHD was tested with 835,136 SNPs in 735 DSM-IV ADHD trios from 732 families.


Our smallest p value (6.7E-07) did not reach the threshold for genome-wide statistical significance (5.0E-08), but one of the 20 most significant associations was located in a candidate gene of interest for ADHD (SLC9A9, rs9810857, p = 6.4E-6). We also conducted gene-based tests of candidate genes identified in the literature and found additional evidence of association with SLC9A9.


We and our colleagues in the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium are working to pool together GWAS samples to establish the large data sets needed to follow-up on these results and to identify genes for ADHD and other disorders.

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