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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010 Sep;39(3):625-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2010.05.009.

Complications of type 1 diabetes.

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Joint Program on Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, New Orleans, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.


The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide and the concern regarding the number of new cases of diabetes relates to the development of chronic complications. It has been recognized for years that the complications are a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and as such, negatively affect the quality of life in individuals with diabetes with an increase in disability and death. Specifically, the complications of diabetes have been classified as either microvascular (ie, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) or macrovascular (ie, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and peripheral vascular disease). For purposes of this article, the authors focus on a brief review of the major complications.

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