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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010 Sep;140(3):545-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.06.013.

Reintervention for arch obstruction after stage 1 reconstruction does not adversely affect survival or outcome at Fontan completion.

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Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA.



To determine the effect of reintervention for coarctation after stage 1 reconstruction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and variants on survival, suitability for Fontan, and morbidity at Fontan.


A retrospective review of echocardiograms, catheterizations, hospital records of patients who underwent stage 1 reconstruction from January 2002 to May 2005, with a cross-sectional analysis of hospital survivors, was performed. Kaplan-Meier curves were derived for patients alive more than 30 days after stage 1 reconstruction.


A total of 176 patients underwent stage 1 reconstruction. Forty-three patients (23%) underwent balloon angioplasty (n = 43) or surgical intervention (n = 4) for re-coarctation. Median time to intervention was 123 (1-316) days. Seven of 43 patients (16%) underwent more than 1 balloon angioplasty. Thirty-nine patients underwent intervention before stage 2 reconstruction, and 4 patients had intervention between stage 2 reconstruction and Fontan. Kaplan-Meier curves showed no difference in freedom from death or transplant between patients who did and did not undergo intervention for re-coarctation. Fontan completion was performed in 107 patients. By echocardiogram, the prevalence of moderate to severe ventricular dysfunction between groups was similar at Fontan; however, significant atrioventricular valve regurgitation was more common in patients who required intervention (28/33 vs 40/65, P = .02). Overall Fontan mortality was 2% and not different between groups. Length of stay was not different between patients with and without re-coarctation.


Reintervention for coarctation after stage 1 reconstruction is common. Hemodynamic differences between groups did not affect Fontan completion, mortality, or hospital length of stay. Follow-up is necessary to determine the impact of re-coarctation on longer-term mortality and morbidity.

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