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Am J Nephrol. 2010;32(4):296-304. doi: 10.1159/000319445. Epub 2010 Aug 17.

Effects of paricalcitol and enalapril on atherosclerotic injury in mouse aortas.

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Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ponce School of Medicine, P.R., USA.



This study investigated the protective effect of vitamin D analog paricalcitol combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) on aortic oxidative injury in atherosclerotic mice.


Female mice were treated for 16 weeks as follows: (1) ApoE deficient + vehicle, (2) ApoE deficient + paricalcitol (200 ng 3 times a week), (3) ApoE deficient + enalapril (30 mg/l in drinking water), (4) ApoE deficient + paricalcitol + enalapril, and (5) wild-type controls.


ApoE-deficient mice developed hypertension which was prevented by enalapril or enalapril + paricalcitol treatment but not by paricalcitol treatment. Histology showed atherosclerotic plaque in the aorta of ApoE-deficient mice which was prevented by paricalcitol, enalapril, and paricalcitol + enalapril treatments. Aortic malondialdehyde levels, NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox), manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattaractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expressions increased, whereas glutathione levels, CuZn-SOD, and endothelial protein expressions decreased in ApoE-deficient mice compared to controls. Treatment with paricalcitol and enalapril alone or in combination protected the inflammatory and oxidative endothelial injury of the aorta in atherosclerotic mice.


Combination therapy affords greater protection against aortic inflammatory and oxidative injury in atherosclerosis than monotherapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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