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Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2011 May;15(2):142-79. doi: 10.1177/1088868310373752. Epub 2010 Aug 17.

The what, how, why, and where of self-construal.

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Iowa State University, Ames, 50011, USA.


Since the publication of Markus and Kitayama's pivotal article on culture and the self, the concepts of independent, relational, and interdependent self-construal have become important constructs in cultural psychology and research on the self. The authors review the history of these constructs, their measurement and manipulation, and their roles in cognition, emotion, motivation, and social behavior. They make suggestions for future research and point to problems still to be sorted out. Researchers interested in these constructs have many opportunities to make important contributions to the literature in a variety of fields, including health psychology, education, counseling, and international relations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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