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Lipids. 2010 Sep;45(9):833-41. doi: 10.1007/s11745-010-3458-4. Epub 2010 Aug 17.

gamma-Tocotrienol reduces squalene hydroperoxide-induced inflammatory responses in HaCaT keratinocytes.

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Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, 981-8555, Japan.


Squalene hydroperoxide (SQ-OOH), the primary peroxidation product of squalene (SQ), accumulates at the surface of sunlight-exposed human skin. There are however only a few studies on the pathogenic actions (i.e., inflammatory stimuli) of SQ-OOH. Here, we evaluated whether SQ-OOH induced inflammatory responses in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). We found that SQ-OOH caused an increase in the expression of inflammatory genes such as the interleukins as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In concordance with the upregulation of COX-2 mRNA, SQ-OOH enhanced reactive oxygen species generation, nuclear factor kappa B activation, COX-2 protein expression, and prostaglandin E2 production. Therefore, the pro-inflammatory effects of SQ-OOH may be mediated in part via COX-2. On the other hand, gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-T3, an unsaturated form of vitamin E) was found to ameliorate the SQ-OOH actions. These results suggest that SQ-OOH induces inflammatory responses in HaCaT, implying that SQ-OOH plays an important role in inflammatory skin disorders. As a preventive strategy, inflammation could be reduced via the use of gamma-T3.

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