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Exp Eye Res. 2011 Aug;93(2):178-86. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2010.07.009. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

The immune response in glaucoma: a perspective on the roles of oxidative stress.

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Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.


Neurodegenerative insults and glial activation during glaucomatous neurodegeneration initiate an immune response to restore tissue homeostasis and facilitate tissue cleaning and healing. However, increasing risk factors over a chronic and cumulative period may lead to a failure in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune response pathways and represent a route for conversion of the beneficial immunity into a neuroinflammatory degenerative process contributing to disease progression. Oxidative stress developing through the pathogenic cellular processes of glaucoma, along with the aging-related component of oxidative stress, likely plays a critical role in shifting the physiological equilibrium. This review aims to provide a perspective on the complex interplay of cellular events during glaucomatous neurodegeneration by proposing a unifying scheme that integrates oxidative stress-related risk factors with the altered regulation of immune response in glaucoma.

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