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Nat Rev Immunol. 2010 Sep;10(9):664-74. doi: 10.1038/nri2832. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

New insights into the development of lymphoid tissues.

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Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Secondary lymphoid organs are important locations for the initiation of adaptive immune responses. They develop before birth, and their formation requires interaction between lymphotoxin-α₁ß₂-expressing lymphoid-tissue inducer cells and lymphotoxin-ß receptor-expressing stromal organizer cells. Here, we discuss new insights into the earliest phases of peripheral lymph node and Peyer's patch formation that occur before lymphotoxin-ß receptor signalling and suggest a role for the developing nervous system. In addition, we discuss the differing requirements for the postnatal formation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues and tertiary lymphoid structures that develop at sites of chronic inflammation.

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