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Clin Mol Allergy. 2010 Aug 11;8:12. doi: 10.1186/1476-7961-8-12.

The increase of plasma galectin-9 in a patient with insulin allergy: a case report.

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Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.


Allergic reaction to insulin is known to be associated with eosinophilia and hyper IgE. Recent report showed that eosinophilia is related with the increased synthesis of galectin-9 (GAL-9) and osteopontin (OPN). Here, we examined plasma levels of GAL-9 and OPN first time in a case of 65-year old patient with insulin allergy. Insulin aspart & insulin aspart 30 mix were given to the patient and an elevation of the eosinophil count (8440/mul, 17.6 fold) and a moderate increase of IgE (501 U/ml, reference range: 10-350 U/ml), eotaxin-3 (168 pg/ml, 2 fold), histamine (0.95 ng/ml, 5.3 fold) were found 33 days later. The plasma levels of GAL-9 and OPN were 22.5 and 1.7 fold higher than the cut-off point, respectively. After one month cessation of insulin therapy, elevations of the eosinophil count (3,480/mul; 7.3 fold), and OPN (1.4 fold) still occurred but the GAL-9 levels became normal. Therefore, we noted the increases of GAL-9 and OPN in plasma for the first time in a patient with insulin allergy and propose that GAL-9 reflects the conditions of allergy more accurately.

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