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Neuroimage. 2011 May 15;56(2):826-36. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.07.068. Epub 2010 Aug 4.

Predicting EEG single trial responses with simultaneous fMRI and relevance vector machine regression.

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1
Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. f.demartino@maastrichtuniversity.nl

Abstract

The combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been proposed as a tool to study brain dynamics with both high temporal and high spatial resolution. Integration through EEG-fMRI trial-by-trial coupling has been proposed as a method to combine the different data sets and achieve temporal expansion of the fMRI data (Eichele et al., 2005). To fully benefit of this type of analysis simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions are necessary (Debener et al., 2006). Here we address the issue of predicting the signal in one modality using information from the other modality. We use multivariate Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression to "learn" the relation between fMRI activation patterns and simultaneously acquired EEG responses in the context of a complex cognitive task entailing an auditory cue, visual mental imagery and a control visual target. We show that multivariate regression is a valuable approach for predicting evoked and induced oscillatory EEG responses from fMRI time series. Prediction of EEG from fMRI is largely influenced by the overall filtering effects of the hemodynamic response function. However, a detailed analysis of the auditory evoked responses shows that there is a small but significant contribution of single trial modulations that can be exploited for linking spatially-distributed patterns of fMRI activation to specific components of the simultaneously-recorded EEG signal.

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